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Sara's First Academic Conference!

Amy Jeffs (left) and Ann Marie Rasmussen (right) ponder a dilemma: do they have their medieval badges? And have they lost Sara?

Amy Jeffs (left) and Ann Marie Rasmussen (right) ponder a dilemma: do they have their medieval badges? And have they lost Sara?

Conferences are a unique time and place–a time to learn, a place to reconnect with old colleagues and to meet new ones. This month I went to my first academic conference, the 54th International Medieval Congress at West Michigan University in Kalamazoo, Michigan. I was able to meet in person scholars I knew from reading and referencing their works as well as others I knew from social media. It was an amazing experience. I was star struck and so excited to engage with these scholars personally. The conference also proved to be an easy and convenient way to meet up with international colleagues to plan and organize research collaborations and trips.

A big decision when attending a big conference is deciding which sessions to attend.  I was shocked by the giant selection of options! The title of a session must capture the reader and the abstract must keep her engaged. Not only that; the session must win out over the dozens of other sessions held during the same time slot! Being a speaker must be quite intimidating for that reason alone. Luckily, I attended the Congress with a group of student peers. We dealt with this dilemma by splitting up to attend different sessions and then meeting up to share what we had learned. That way we could learn from as many sessions as possible. The conference was intense; you’re absorbing so much new information and ideas and hanging out with interesting people you would otherwise never get to meet.  

As I reflect on it, I see ways I could have better prepared. For example, I could have asked my professor for advice on how to scrutinize sessions better. Still, I learned a lot about the historical fields I want to pursue in my future MA studies. I learned a lot about history; about museum curation and badges; about how to look at and bring together multiple streams of scholarship; and how to be brave and admit you are wrong or simply don’t know. I learned about the instability of political images, and how badges were a perfect medium for those unstable political images because they were so easy to manufacture, being made of cheap tin-lead alloy, commonly referred to as pewter, and quick to melt down and set (if you want to see a video clip of the manufacturing process, click here). A medieval political badge, or any pewter badge, could be taken, melted down and poured into another mold in less than half an hour! Art historian Sonja Drimmer demonstrated that this is exactly what happened. Badges showed and made communities, but these communities were able to change symbols and allegiances at their own or other people’s whims. It is interesting what you learn at conferences. Sonja Drimmer used evidence drawn from medieval English chronicles and literature to prove her points instead of simply analysing the actual objects.

I learned a lot about my field of museum studies, but also much about other related and unrelated fields and all of it is useful. My biggest take-away is that good presentation skills really matter. If the speaker ran out of time and talked too fast or had too much written information on their power points slides, or rambled, their presentation was harder to understand, and the audience got distracted. One the other hand, giant beautiful photos and some well-timed jokes helped me pay attention.

All in all, academic conferences are well worth the time, effort, and money to attend!

What is Popular (Religious) Culture in the 15th Century?

Westminster Abbey. Photo courtesy of Sara Fontes

Westminster Abbey. Photo courtesy of Sara Fontes

In 1420, the Vicar Richard Caistor of Saint Stephen’s died. Upon his death the locals wanted to make him a saint. Why did they want to honour him in this fashion? He was known to be a knowledgeable man who was pious and radical; perhaps he was also charismatic. For whatever reason, a cult sprang up around his tomb.

People went on pilgrimage to Saint Stephen’s and bought special souvenirs there. One version of the Caistor badges showed him preaching in a pulpit with a dove whispering into his right ear. Caistor is framed by a hexagonal scroll that is inscribed with the words ‘Mr Cast of Norwich’ and decorated with exterior crockets.  In June, 2018, I had the amazing opportunity to handle this badge up close and personal at Lynn Museum. It was fascinating to see and hold something that was so old and connected to the locale of  King’s Lynn.

Tin Lead Alloy, Richard Caister as priest standing in pulpit, Holy Ghost in shape of dove at one side of his head framed in pentagon shape scroll [MR CAST OF NORWICHE], Saint Stephen’s, 1420-1599, found in the Purfleet Quay, 400 x 400 mm. King’s Lynn, Lynn Museum, PB 86 (Kunera 07528). Photo courtesy of Sara Fontes.

Tin Lead Alloy, Richard Caister as priest standing in pulpit, Holy Ghost in shape of dove at one side of his head framed in pentagon shape scroll [MR CAST OF NORWICHE], Saint Stephen’s, 1420-1599, found in the Purfleet Quay, 400 x 400 mm. King’s Lynn, Lynn Museum, PB 86 (Kunera 07528). Photo courtesy of Sara Fontes.

At first, this badge aroused my curiosity because of the tiny dove whispering into Caistor’s ear. I wondered what the dove was inspiring him to talk about. The more I learned about the history behind this badge, the more it intrigued and puzzled me. Why did the locals want to make Caistor a saint of the Roman Catholic church? What made him so special? He was a local man, and popular enough to be chosen by the populace for sainthood. He is said to have been very devout; perhaps he inspired religious devotion in others. Another reason might have been to increase regional interest in the town and so increase trade and pilgrim visits. Why should another town benefit when King’s Lynn had such an amazing vicar? And yet, the bid to have Caistor made a saint failed. I wondered about that, too. This tiny object has quite a story to tell about popular religious culture in fifteenth-century England.

Written by Sara Fontes and Jana Köpcke.

Bibliography

Spencer, Brian. Medieval Pilgrim Badges from Norfolk (Hunstanton: Witley Press, 1980).

Tanner, N.P. The Church in Late Medieval Norwich, 1370-1532 (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1984).

 Webb, Diana. Pilgrimage in Medieval England (London: A&C Black, 2000).

The Veil of Veronica

““He had big bulging eyes, just like a hare.

He’d sewn a Vernicle on his cap.”

– A description of the Pardoner in Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales.

Tin Lead Alloy, Veronica Icon: countenance of Christ on a veil, surrounded by dots in round frame, Rome, 1000-1599, 310 x 400 mm. King’s Lynn, Lynn Museum, PB 49 (Kunera 07520). Photo courtesy of Shannon Phaneuf.

Tin Lead Alloy, Veronica Icon: countenance of Christ on a veil, surrounded by dots in round frame, Rome, 1000-1599, 310 x 400 mm. King’s Lynn, Lynn Museum, PB 49 (Kunera 07520). Photo courtesy of Shannon Phaneuf.

The vernicle was a popular badge which showed the Veronica: an image of Christ’s face on Saint Veronica’s veil.  One delicate, fifteenth-century vernicle was found around a hundred years ago in the muddy River Great Ouse in Norfolk, far away from Rome where it was made and sold to traveling pilgrims.  This vernicle was discovered by children, who had been hired by Thomas Pung in King’s Lynn to search the river for such finds.

St Veronica standing, holding the veil in front of her; a reversed copy after Marcantonio Engraving.  Photo courtesy of the British Museum 1869,0410.13, AN37921001

St Veronica standing, holding the veil in front of her; a reversed copy after Marcantonio Engraving. Photo courtesy of the British Museum
1869,0410.13,
AN37921001

Have you ever thought about why people traveled in the late Middle Ages? Besides trade and war, the most popular reason to go abroad was to undertake a pilgrimage. Just like travel today, pilgrimage, which promised spiritual rewards, was widespread among all social classes. Pilgrims would often buy small pewter and lead alloy badges at the holy sites they visited. These badges signified the completion of their journey and were a sign of devotion and commemoration.

The vernicle is a representation of the veil of Saint Veronica, a so-called contact relic (because it was believed to have been in contact with the living Christ) and symbol of a miracle. Legend held that the miracle happened when Saint Veronica used her veil to wipe the sweat and blood off Jesus’ face as he was walking to his crucifixion, leaving an imprint of his face permanently on the cloth. The shrine of the Veronica was one of Rome’s biggest pilgrim attractions in the Middle Ages. The first direct references to its existence are from the end of the twelfth century. At that time, it was hidden behind a curtain, away from the public. Pope Innocent III (b. 1161-d. 1216) brought it closer to the public by parading it through the streets on Fridays and feast days. Allowing pilgrims this access helped make Rome an ever more popular pilgrim destination. By the early seventeenth century, the Veil of Veronica had disappeared from public view. If it is still housed in Rome, it has very likely disintegrated. Textiles usually do not last more than two thousand years, although there are exceptions due to preservation conditions such as the Tarkhan Dress which is over 5,000 years old. Due to its frequent exposure in the Middle Ages most scholars believe that the Veronica is no longer extant.

Written by Sarah Johnston and Mackenzie Pritchard.

Bibliography

Birch, D. Pilgrimage to Rome in the Middle Ages (Suffolk: Boydell Press, 1998).

Clark, John. Medieval finds from the River Thames: Accidental Loss, Rubbish or Ritual?  Powerpoint presentation, (2017).

Hopper, Sarah. To Be a Pilgrim: The Medieval Pilgrimage Experience (London: Sutton Publishing Limited, 2002).

Rasmussen, Ann Marie. “Material Meanings: What a Medieval Badges Can Tell You about Translation in the Middle Ages.” In Un/Translatables: New Maps for German Literature edited by Catriona Macleod and Bethany Wiggin, 215–28 (Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2016).

Weitbrecht, Julia, "The Vera Icon (or Veronica) in the Verse Legend Veronica II: Medialising Salvation in the Late Middle Ages,“ in Seminar: A Journal of Ger­ma­nic Studies 52, no.2 (2016): pp. 173-192.